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Watermarkable Public key Encryption With Efficient Extraction Under Standard Assumptions

September/2022, To appear in: SCN '22

The current state of the art in watermarked public-key encryption schemes under standard cryptographic assumptions suggests that extracting the embedded message requires either linear time in the number of marked keys or the a-priori knowledge of the marked key employed in the decoder.

We present the first scheme that obviates these restrictions in the secret-key marking model, i.e., the setting where extraction is performed using a private extraction key. Our construction offers constant time extraction complexity with constant size keys and ciphertexts and is secure under standard assumptions, namely the Decisional Composite Residuosity Assumption [Eurocrypt '99] and the Decisional Diffie Hellman in prime order subgroups of square higher order residues.