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Models for Generation of Proof Forest in ZK-SNARK Based Sidechains

March/2023, Cryptography


Sidechains are among the most promising scalability and extended functionality solutions for blockchains. Application of zero knowledge techniques (Latus, Mina) allows for reaching high level security and general throughput, though it brings new challenges on keeping decentralization where significant effort is required for robust computation of zk-proofs. We consider a simultaneous decentralized creation of various zk-proof trees that form proof-trees sequences in sidechains in the model that combines behavior of provers, both deterministic (mutually consistent) or stochastic (independent) and types of proof trees. We define the concept of efficiency of such process, introduce its quantity measure and recommend parameters for tree creation. In deterministic cases, the sequences of published trees are ultimately periodic and ensure the highest possible efficiency (no collisions in proof creation). In stochastic cases, we obtain a universal measure of prover efficiencies given by the explicit formula in one case or calculated by a simulation model in another case. The optimal number of allowed provers’ positions for a step can be set for various sidechain parameters, such as number of provers, number of time steps within one block, etc. Benefits and restrictions for utilization of non-perfect binary proof trees are also explicitly presented.